Water Quality Assessment of El-Salam Canal (Egypt) Based on Physico-Chemical Characteristics in Addition to Hydrophytes and their Epiphytic Algae

Abdel-Hamid MI, El-Amier YA, Abdel-Aal EI, El-Far GM

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Cairo, Egypt.

Accepted 07 May, 2017.

Citation: Abdel-Hamid MI, El-Amier YA, Abdel-Aal EI, El-Far GM (2017). Water Quality Assessment of El-Salam Canal (Egypt) Based on Physico-Chemical Characteristics in Addition to Hydrophytes and their Epiphytic Algae. International Journal of Ecology and Development Research, 3(1): 028-043.

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Copyright: © 2017 El-Amier et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Abstract

Water quality of El-Salam Canal was assessed using physico-chemical and certain biological characteristics. Downstream increase of total soluble inorganic nitrogen (TSIN) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) indicated increasing downstream eutrophication. The significant (P ≤ 0.01) downstream increase of chloride indicated elevated pollution. Water quality index (WQI) down (53) and up-stream (48) stations indicated bad to moderate condition, respectively. The increase of N, P, heavy metals and WQI may be attributed to excessive input of wastewater from El-Serw and Hadous drains. The highest concentrations of Fe (0.138 mg/l), Mn (0.116), Zn (0.057), Cu (0.019), Pb (0.278) and Cd (0.016) were recorded at downstream stations. Accumulation of these metals by hydrophytes followed the order: Fe ˃ Mn ˃ Zn ˃ Cu ˃ Pb ˃ Cd. Fifteen different hydrophytes were recorded with marked decline in species richness during winter and at downstream stations. The epiphytic microalgae were represented by 50 different taxa, belonging to six phylla including Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta and Rhodophyta. Thespecies composition and richness of the epiphytic microalgae was largely influenced by the plant species, as the highest number of species (42 taxa) was recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum and the lowest one (31 taxa) for Phragmites australis.

Key words: El-Salam canal, epiphytic algae, hydrophytes, water quality, artificial streams.