Iodine Deficiency in a Mountainous Area of Central Java, Indonesia in the Perspective of Ecology

Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

Iodine Deficiency Disorders Study Group

 Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia

Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Surakarta 57126. Tel/Fax +62-271-664178

Accepted 6 December 2017

Citation: Dewi YLR (2017). Iodine Deficiency in a Mountainous Area of Central Java, Indonesia in the Perspective of Ecology. International Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology Research, 3(1): 028-034.

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Copyright: © 2017 Yulia Dewi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Abstract

Iodine status measured as urinary iodine excretion in school children has improved in recent years in Indonesia, including Central Java province. However, the Total Goiter Rate (TGR) in the Ngargoyoso sub-district was 51.0% in 2010.The objective of this study was to identify environmental factors that may affect iodine deficiency in this sub-district. An ecological perspective was used as a conceptual framework to conduct cross sectional studies between 2010 and 2015. Data on Total goiter rate was collected from 800 schoolchildren aged 8-10 years using palpation of the thyroid gland. The urinary iodine excretion was carried out by using acid digestion Sandell- Kolthoff reaction on 371 preschool children and 153 pregnant women.  Iodized salt was determined by Iodina test ™ (Kimia Farma, Indonesia). Hemoglobin concentration was measured by Sahli Method. A direct method with 2% eosin in alcohol was used to look for soil helminthes eggs. Microbiological examination was done on drinking water to find out Escherichia coli. TGR in school children was 51.0%. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) < 100µg/L in preschool children was 23.3%. UIE <150µg/L among pregnant women was 54.3%. Iodine was not detected in the drinking water, but contaminated by Escherichia coli. Soil helminthes infestation i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura or Necator americanus were found in 46% of feces examined. The prevalence of anemia in school children were 94%. Environmental factors may influence iodine deficiency in Ngargoyoso sub-district.

Key words: ecology, environmental factors, iodine deficiency, total goiter rate, Central Java.