Effluents from Paper and Pulp Industries and their impact on soil properties and chemical composition of plants in Uttarakhand, India
Jitendra Giri, Anjana Srivastava, SP Pachauri and PC Srivastava
Accepted 7 June, 2014.
Citation: Giri J, Srivastava A, Pachauri SP, Srivastava PC (2014). Effluents from Paper and Pulp Industries and their impact on Soil Properties and Chemical Composition of Plants in Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 1(3): 026-030.
Copyright: © 2014 Srivastava et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.
Industrial effluents of Paper and Pulp industries Mill were characterized and their impact on soil properties and chemical composition of crop plants was studied in Uttarakhand State of India. The effluent characteristics particularly, total suspended and total dissolved solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and the content of Na were higher than the prescribed limits. In general, a considerable decrease in the concentration of total suspended and dissolved solids, bicarbonate, chloride, ammoniacal, calcium, sodium, potassium, copper, manganese and cobalt occurred during the flow of effluents downstream. The lateral seepage of paper and pulp industrial effluent to agricultural lands increased the soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC). At shorter distances from point source, the lateral seepage of effluent increased exchangeable K, Na and extractable S, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb and Ni in soil. The contents of P, K, micronutrients, Pb and Ni in wheat plants increased due to seepage of effluent to the nearby agricultural fields close to the point source.
Key words: Effluents, crop plants, nutrients, toxic metals, Paper and pulp industries